Fundamentally, good search engine optimization (SEO) consists of two components – On-page factors, which are the things you can control on your home page & each page/post of your website. Off-page factors fundamentally relate to the number of and authority levels of other websites that link back to your website.
Incorporate your target keyword phrase into your domain name URL
In a perfect world, your domain name URL will incorporate your target keyword phrase. This provides a distinct advantage in getting your website to rank for your target keyword or phrase. For instance, if your target keyword or phrase is “Family Law,” choosing a domain name such as “family-law-service.com” will automatically give you a significant advantage. It is easy to believe all of the best dot-com names are already taken, but with a little creativity, you can almost always come up with a good name that incorporates your target keyword phrase.
Include an optimized Title meta tag
Your title tag is among the essential elements on your page and should be kept within 70 characters. Do not keyword stuff your title, but do be sure to incorporate your most important keyword phrase for the page into your title. So as an example, “Piano Tuning – Best Piano Tuning Service Online” might be a good title to use. The other important thing to remember with title tags is to avoid repeating the same title from page to page within your website; each page or post on your website should use a different title, optimized for different or related keywords.
Include an optimized Description meta tag
Your description should be kept to within 160 characters, and it should incorporate your title (from the title tag) within the description along with a compelling reason or call to action to entice people to visit your site. The description meta tag is vital because it is part of the search engine results displayed back to the person who has input a search phrase, and it is typically your description that will determine whether or not the person clicks through to your site.
Always use H1 and H2 heading tags.
Incorporating heading tags within the content of your web page helps reinforce to the search engines what your page content is about. Heading tags are used to format content on your page as a heading rather than regular (paragraph) text, and the search engines look for the H1 tag to reinforce what the page is about. The H1 tag should be used once on the page and should incorporate your primary target keyword phrase. The H2 tag may be used more than once, should come after the h1 tag on the page, and should incorporate one or more of your targeted keyword phrases.
Incorporate images and use the ALT Image description tag
The best practice is to incorporate one or more images into your web page and take advantage of the ALT image description to describe the image – using one or more target keywords in the description. This provides another opportunity to reinforce your web page and help it be indexed and categorized the way you intend within the search engines.
Other factors such as Keyword-rich content, Clean, simple navigated design, Well-written source code, Link Building, etc., also affect search engine ranking and are considered to be among the best practices.